SCOPE OF POULTRY PRODUCTION AND HATCHERY MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
- Poultry industry which provides cheap source of animal protein has taken a quantum leap in the last three decades evolving from a near backyard practice to a venture of industrial promotion. Poultry is one of the fastest growing segments of the agricultural sector in India today. While the production of agricultural crops has been rising at a rate of 1.5 to 2 percent per annum that of eggs has been rising at a rate of 8 percent per annum. India is on the world map as one of the top five egg producing countries with 55.6 billion eggs produced during 2008.
- The poultry sector in India has undergone a paradigm shift in structure and operation. This transformation has involved sizable investments in breeding, hatching, rearing and processing. Farmers in India have moved from rearing non-descript birds to rearing hybrids which ensures faster growth, good liveability, excellent feed conversion and high profits to the rearers. High quality chicks, equipment, vaccines and medicines are available. Technically and professionally competent guidance is available to the farmers. The management practices have improved and disease and mortality incidences are reduced to a great extent. The industry has grown largely due to the initiative of private enterprise, minimal government intervention, considerable indigenous poultry genetic capabilities and adequate support from the complementary veterinary health, poultry feed, poultry equipment and poultry processing sectors. The industry has created direct and indirect employment for 3 million people.
Duck rearing is prevalent among weaker sections of rural population which provides them supplementary and steady income on daily basis besides providing them nutrition duck eggs for family consumption and engaging family labour in their leisure hours to look after Duck unit thus, generates rural employment.
Gujarat State has several hectares of land under in land water ponds or water holes particularly in South Gujarat region and tribal communities keep duck for production of duck eggs and duck meal, which are considered to be poorman’s poultry productions available at affordable prices.
Over 10 million duck population exists in the country and ranks 2nd in the world after Indonesia. Around 600 million duck eggs valued at Rs. 180 crore are being produced and are being consumed in the rural area, Kerala, West-Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh are the Staes where duck are predominant.
- Ducks suppliment their feed by foraging. They eat fallen grains in harvested paddy fields, insects, shails, earth worms, small other fishes etc.
- Duck rearing does not require elaborate housing like poultry. Ducks are more hardy well suited for weaker section where level of management is moderately scientific.
- Marshy, riverside, wet land and barren moors are excellent areas for duck farming. Duck cum fish farming can be integrated.
- Ducks lay 95% to 98% eggs in early morning before 9.00 am after which the flock can be taken for foraging to nearby ponds by the duck farmer or his family members.
- Khaki Campbell is best egg producing breed in ducks. Animal Husbandry Department of Govt of Gujarat from their Duck breeding farms at Mandvi in Surat district can supply 3 months old duck lings at Rs. 130 per duck ling.
- Indian breeds of ducks are Indian Runner, Nageshwari, Sythetemete, Kuttanadu Chara and Chemballi. Khaki Campbel – a synthetic breed is being used as an improver breed.
- Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) is the domesticated version of common wild quail (Coturnix coturnix). Indian subspecies of quail, viz. Rain, Grey and Button quail collectively known as ‘Bater’ has distinct popularity as game bird. Quails are seen in diversified colour varieties. Commonly seen plumage is a mixture of different shades of brown with some black patterns. Besides the cultural and religious considerations for animal keeping, all the breeds of different domestic livestock and poultry species are contributing significantly to food and agriculture in terms of milk meat, wool, fibre, egg, manure, fuel and draft power. Variations in regional demand for animal products have influenced the use of different AnGR.
Economic traits in poultry: